20 Biblical Traditions Heavily Influenced by Other Ancient Cultures
20 Biblical Traditions Heavily Influenced by Other Ancient Cultures

20 Biblical Traditions Heavily Influenced by Other Ancient Cultures

Steve - March 20, 2019

20 Biblical Traditions Heavily Influenced by Other Ancient Cultures
“The Resurrection of Jesus Christ (Kinnaird Resurrection)”, by Rafael (c. 1499-1502). Wikimedia Commons.

3. The most important component of the narrative of Jesus, the resurrection of a murdered divine is a common theme in preceding religious traditions

The resurrection of Christ, a central doctrine of Christianity, contends that, after execution by the Romans via crucifixion, Jesus rose from the dead before subsequently ascending to heaven. Celebrated as evidence of his divinity, this aspect of the Christian narrative is highly unoriginal and derivative, with the “dying-and-rising god” motif a recurrent feature throughout ancient religious traditions. Coined by the anthropologist James George Frazer, comparative inquiries of several Near East religions from this time observe the inclusion of this theme, appearing also in Mesopotamia, Greece, Phrygia, Egypt, and Sumeria.

Bearing a close resemblance to the subsequent Greek narrative of Persephone, the Sumerian god Tammuz, killed in place of his wife, Inanna, who had escaped the underworld, would be resurrected each year to walk the Earth again for a brief time in honor of his sacrifice. Equally, the Egyptian deity Osiris was murdered by his brother, Set, and chopped into many parts scattered across the world. Pieced together by his wife, Isis, Osiris was resurrected and became the king of the dead within the Egyptian pantheon. With similar appearance by Adonis in Ancient Greece and Attis in Phrygia, the Christian narrative regarding Jesus is simply another in an extensive history of resurrection stories.

20 Biblical Traditions Heavily Influenced by Other Ancient Cultures
“Seated Dionysus holding out a kantharos”, by Psiax (c. 520-500 BCE). Wikimedia Commons.

2. Looking beyond simply the Marriage at Cana, the Jesus narrative in general follows a closely similar story arc to that of the Greek legends surrounding Dionysus

Distilling the story elements of the gospel narrative of Jesus, several key themes emerge as central to his character arc. Most importantly: an individual possessing divine authority and power but who is disguised as a mortal to walk among humanity, that said individual suffers persecution at the hands of mankind whilst seeking to impart wisdom, that he garners followers, including a retinue of female companions, as part of his ministry, and that his story ends in death at the hands of mankind. Whilst the Gospel of John, the most unique of the four canonical gospels, bears the closest resemblance, Jesus’ story in general carries significant similarities to that of Dionysus.

As previously noted, the Greek figure of Dionysus retains specific traits familiar with the Christian savior which were likely produced due to the not insubstantial influence of the cult of Dionysus in the Near East at the time of the New Testament’s writing. However, comparing the legendary Greek god of wine’s story to that of the Christian narrative – an elusive, hunted, persecuted prophetic teacher, whose life ends in violent death – one cannot ignore the highly derivative nature of the younger Christian tradition. Being fair, however, to the gospel authors, it is not as identical as other biblical appropriations, with the two characters offering differing moral advice and acting in opposition concerning violence.

20 Biblical Traditions Heavily Influenced by Other Ancient Cultures
A heroic representation believed to depict Enkidu, at the Palace of Sargon II at Khorsabad (c. 713-706 BCE). Wikimedia Commons.

1. Possessing enormous similarities with the Christian creation story in the Book of Genesis, both Adam and the Garden of Eden are drawn from alternative and older religious traditions

Created by God from “the dust of the ground”, with life subsequently breathed into him, according to the Bible Adam was the first man. Provided with the Garden of Eden, a “paradise of pleasure”, in which to live, the consumption of the forbidden fruit results in Adam, along with his wife Eve, being expelled from the Garden. Once more, the Judeo-Christian tradition is not original, but instead appropriates significantly from the Epic of Gilgamesh which includes the tale of Enkidu. Formed from clay and water by Aruru, the goddess of creation, Enkidu lives among the animals in a natural paradise until he is tempted by a woman, Shamhat, who tricks him into leaving his sanctuary naked.

Unable to return, Enkidu is condemned to walk the Earth among other humans until his eventual death by illness – a condition non-existent in his previous paradise. Demonstrating how interconnected the ancient Near East religions truly are, the Persian religion of Zoroastrianism equally contains a similar creation story to the younger Christian narrative. The Avesta – the primary collection of religious scriptures in Zoroastrianism – depicts a story of creation by Ormuzd. Taking six days, and resting upon the seventh, the 10th century BCE text also includes reference to the creation of the first two humans, named Adama and Evah.

 

Where do we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

“Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead: Journey Through the Afterlife”, John H. Taylor, British Museum Press (2010)

“The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic”, William Warde Fowler, Nabu Press (2010, reprint)

“The Book of Christmas: Everything We Once Knew and Loved About Christmastime”, Jane Struthers, Ebury Press (2012)

“A History of Zoroastrianism, Vol. 1”, Mary Boyce, Leiden Brill (1996)

“Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices”, Mary Boyce, Routledge & Kegan Paul (1979)

“The Quest for the Trinity: The Doctrine of God in Scripture, History, and Modernity”, Stephen R. Holmes, IVP Academic (2012)

“Asclepius: The God of Medicine”, Gerald D. Hart, Royal Society of Medicine Press (2000)

“Asclepius: Collection and Interpretation of the Testimonies”, Ludwig Edelstein and Emma Edelstein, Johns Hopkins University Press (1998)

“Samson and the Liminal Hero in the Ancient Near East”, Gregory Mobley, T & T Clark (2006)

“The Great Fish in Ancient and Medieval Story”, Cornelia Catlin Coulter, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association (1926)

“Fishing for Jonah (anew)”, Louis Jonker and Douglas Lawrie, Stellenbosch University (2005)

“Mythology: An Illustrated Encyclopaedia”, Richard Cavendish and Trevor Oswald Ling, Rizzoli Publishing (1980)

“God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything”, Christopher Hitchens, Twelve Books Publishing (2007)

“Athena”, Susan Deacy, Routledge (2008)

“John as Storyteller: Narrative Criticism and the Fourth Gospel”, Mark W.G. Stibbe, Cambridge University Press (1994)

“The Myth of Paganism: Nonnus, Dionysus, and the World of Late Antiquity”, Robert Shorrock, Bloomsbury Academic (2011)

“Asian Mythologies”, Yves Bonnefoy and Wendy Doniger, University of Chicago Press (1993)

“The Buddha and Christ: Explorations in Buddhist and Christian Dialogue”, Leo D. Lefebure, Orbis Books (1993)

“Essential Buddhism”, Jack Maguire, Atria Books (2001)

“World Mythology: An Anthology of the Great Myths and Epics”, Donna Rosenberg, National Textbook Company (1994)

“The Alleged Semitic Origin of the Wisdom of Amenemope”, Ronald J. Williams, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology (1961)

“The Teachings of Amenemope and Proverbs XXII 17-XXIV 22: Further Reflections on a Long-standing Problem”, J.A. Emerton, Vetus Testamentum (2001)

“Introducing Christian Doctrine”, Millard Erickson, Baker Academic (2001)

“The ‘Babel of Tongues’: A Sumerian Version”, Samuel Noah Kramer, Journal of the American Oriental Society (1968)

“The Angel-Messiah of Buddhists, Essenes, and Christians”, Ernest De Bunsen, Longmans, Green & Company (2016)

“Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times”, Jerry H. Bentley, Oxford University Press (1992)

“The ‘Dying and Rising God’: A Survey of Research from Frazer to the Present Day”, Tryggve N.D. Mettinger, in “David and Zion: Biblical Studies in Honor of J.J.M. Roberts”, Bernard F. Batto and Kathryn L. Roberts, Eisenbrauns Publishing (2004)

“The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition”, Paul Rhodes Eddy and Gregory A. Boyd, Baker Academic (2007)

“The Elusive Christ: A New Reading of the Fourth Gospel”, Mark W.G. Stibbe, Routledge (1993)

“The Epic of Gilgamesh”, Benjamin R. Foster, W.W. Norton & Company (2001)

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