5. The story of the Tower of Babel, an important historical construction in the Old Testament, contains noteworthy similarities to an ancient Sumerian legend
The Tower of Babel, appearing in the Book of Genesis, serves as an origin myth to explain the different languages of the world. In the aftermath of the Great Flood, a united mankind embarks on a project to construct a great tower to reach heaven. Thwarting this effort, God confuses their speech and scatters humanity throughout the world to preclude future attempts. Believed to have been inspired, at least in part, by the Etemenanki – an ancient ziggurat dedicated to the Mesopotamian god Marduk – in Babylon, which would have been observed by the Israelites during the Babylonian Exile, the biblical narrative also draws considerably from a Sumerian legend.
Composed in the 21st century BCE, more than a millennium before the Bible, Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta is was an ancient Sumerian account of a series of conflicts between Enmerkar, King of Uruk, and an unnamed ruler of Aratta. The motivation behind the conflict, according to the story, was the demand by Enmerkar of tribute from Aratta to aid with the construction of a gigantic ziggurat in Eridu designed to reach the divine Enlil. Imploring the god Enki to restore the linguistic unity of mankind so that they might once again cooperate in peace, the Uruks are refused and a great war ensues among the nations of man.
4. As with the story of the temptation of Christ by evil, many of the teachings of Jesus are close reproductions of older Buddhist mantras and principles
Predating the birth of Jesus by more than five hundred years, significant parallels between the teachings of the Buddha and of Jesus might be recognized. Identified more broadly by biblical scholars since the 19th century, with Ernest De Bunsen concluding that, with the exception of death by crucifixion, the Christian narrative of the life of Jesus was highly similar to that of Siddhārtha Gautama. These suggested influences by the Eastern religion upon early Christianity are not without historical corroboration, with Buddhism prevalent throughout the Near East at the start of the Common Era and indirect assimilation of teachings common practice throughout antiquity.
Among the “many parallels concerning the births, lives, doctrines, and deaths of the Buddha and Jesus”, a close examination of the holy teachings reveals substantial borrowing by the Christian gospels from the older religion. Whilst Luke 6:31 proclaims “and as you would that men should do to you, do you also to them in like manner”, the Dhammapada 10:1 encourages followers to “consider others as yourself”. Meanwhile, as the Buddha implored that “if anyone should give you a blow with his hand…you should abandon any desires and utter no evil words”, Jesus reciprocally taught “to him that striketh thee on the one cheek, offer also the other”.
3. The most important component of the narrative of Jesus, the resurrection of a murdered divine is a common theme in preceding religious traditions
The resurrection of Christ, a central doctrine of Christianity, contends that, after execution by the Romans via crucifixion, Jesus rose from the dead before subsequently ascending to heaven. Celebrated as evidence of his divinity, this aspect of the Christian narrative is highly unoriginal and derivative, with the “dying-and-rising god” motif a recurrent feature throughout ancient religious traditions. Coined by the anthropologist James George Frazer, comparative inquiries of several Near East religions from this time observe the inclusion of this theme, appearing also in Mesopotamia, Greece, Phrygia, Egypt, and Sumeria.
Bearing a close resemblance to the subsequent Greek narrative of Persephone, the Sumerian god Tammuz, killed in place of his wife, Inanna, who had escaped the underworld, would be resurrected each year to walk the Earth again for a brief time in honor of his sacrifice. Equally, the Egyptian deity Osiris was murdered by his brother, Set, and chopped into many parts scattered across the world. Pieced together by his wife, Isis, Osiris was resurrected and became the king of the dead within the Egyptian pantheon. With similar appearance by Adonis in Ancient Greece and Attis in Phrygia, the Christian narrative regarding Jesus is simply another in an extensive history of resurrection stories.
2. Looking beyond simply the Marriage at Cana, the Jesus narrative in general follows a closely similar story arc to that of the Greek legends surrounding Dionysus
Distilling the story elements of the gospel narrative of Jesus, several key themes emerge as central to his character arc. Most importantly: an individual possessing divine authority and power but who is disguised as a mortal to walk among humanity, that said individual suffers persecution at the hands of mankind whilst seeking to impart wisdom, that he garners followers, including a retinue of female companions, as part of his ministry, and that his story ends in death at the hands of mankind. Whilst the Gospel of John, the most unique of the four canonical gospels, bears the closest resemblance, Jesus’ story in general carries significant similarities to that of Dionysus.
As previously noted, the Greek figure of Dionysus retains specific traits familiar with the Christian savior which were likely produced due to the not insubstantial influence of the cult of Dionysus in the Near East at the time of the New Testament’s writing. However, comparing the legendary Greek god of wine’s story to that of the Christian narrative – an elusive, hunted, persecuted prophetic teacher, whose life ends in violent death – one cannot ignore the highly derivative nature of the younger Christian tradition. Being fair, however, to the gospel authors, it is not as identical as other biblical appropriations, with the two characters offering differing moral advice and acting in opposition concerning violence.
1. Possessing enormous similarities with the Christian creation story in the Book of Genesis, both Adam and the Garden of Eden are drawn from alternative and older religious traditions
Created by God from “the dust of the ground”, with life subsequently breathed into him, according to the Bible Adam was the first man. Provided with the Garden of Eden, a “paradise of pleasure”, in which to live, the consumption of the forbidden fruit results in Adam, along with his wife Eve, being expelled from the Garden. Once more, the Judeo-Christian tradition is not original, but instead appropriates significantly from the Epic of Gilgamesh which includes the tale of Enkidu. Formed from clay and water by Aruru, the goddess of creation, Enkidu lives among the animals in a natural paradise until he is tempted by a woman, Shamhat, who tricks him into leaving his sanctuary naked.
Unable to return, Enkidu is condemned to walk the Earth among other humans until his eventual death by illness – a condition non-existent in his previous paradise. Demonstrating how interconnected the ancient Near East religions truly are, the Persian religion of Zoroastrianism equally contains a similar creation story to the younger Christian narrative. The Avesta – the primary collection of religious scriptures in Zoroastrianism – depicts a story of creation by Ormuzd. Taking six days, and resting upon the seventh, the 10th century BCE text also includes reference to the creation of the first two humans, named Adama and Evah.
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