Here's the Scoop on this Dysfunctional Dynasty in History
Here’s the Scoop on this Dysfunctional Dynasty in History

Here’s the Scoop on this Dysfunctional Dynasty in History

Khalid Elhassan - May 23, 2019

Here’s the Scoop on this Dysfunctional Dynasty in History
Julius Caesar. National Geographic

3. For Centuries, The Great Library’s Demise Was a Mystery

It is commonly thought that the Great Library was burned down or destroyed in a cataclysmic event. Plutarch (46 – 120 AD), holds that the library was accidentally destroyed by Julius Caesar during the siege of Alexandria in 48 BC. However, the geographer Strabo, writing 30 years after the siege of Alexandria about the Mouseion, to which the Great Library was attached, mentions no such destruction. Christian zealots have also been blamed. Supposedly, when Emperor Theodosius banned pagan practices in 391, Christian gangs celebrated with anti pagan riots, during which they torched the building. However, the accounts of the rioting actually refer to the Christians destroying the Serapium, or temple of Serapis, which is not the Great Library, or even a library at all.

Another culprit is the Muslim Caliph Omar. Supposedly, after Egypt fell to the Muslims in the 7th century, somebody asked the conquering general Amr for the books in the royal library. Amr wrote the Caliph for instructions, and Omar reportedly replied “If the books are in agreement with the Quran, we have no need of them, and if they are opposed to the Quran, destroy them“. However, there is nothing to support this story other than a single account by a Syrian Christian writer, who probably wanted to tarnish the Caliph’s image.

Here’s the Scoop on this Dysfunctional Dynasty in History
Portrait of the emperor Marcus Aurelius found in Kandilli (Bilecik Province). Archaeological Museum of Istanbul, Turkey

2. Turned Out the Great Library Disappeared Due to Budget Cuts

There is no archaeological evidence to support any account of a cataclysmic destruction of the Great Library. The likeliest culprit is something more prosaic and petty: budget cuts. The Ptolemaic Dynasty generously supported the Great Library, both out of belief in its mission, and because its presence lent their capital city of Alexandria significant prestige as the ancient world’s greatest educational center. That changed after the Romans conquered Egypt in 30 BC: the new rulers had no attachment to the Great Library, so they did not support it like the Ptolemaic rulers had.

Additionally, Alexandria in the Roman era was given to frequent rioting between its Greek, Jewish, and native Egyptian populations – not the most inviting environment for scholars. More significantly, the Emperor Marcus Aurelius suspended the Mouseion’s revenue, eliminated its members’ stipends, and expelled all foreign scholars from Alexandria. The Great Library’s significance in the ancient world was based not on its being a repository of scrolls, but on its scholarship. When Marcus Aurelius essentially fired the scholars and forbade new students from coming in, he effectively shut down the Great Library’s operations. It would be akin to the fate of MIT or Harvard, if all their professors were fired, and out of state students were prohibited from setting foot in Boston.

Here’s the Scoop on this Dysfunctional Dynasty in History
Julius Caesar, Mark Antony, and Cleopatra. YouTube

1. The Dramatic Ptolemies Went Out in Dramatic Fashion

All of the Ptolemies’ vices, intrigues, betrayals, and perversions, were present in the reign of Cleopatra VII, the Ptolemaic Dynasty’s most famous ruler, and the last one who wielded actual power. Carrying on the family’s tradition of incest, she married her younger brother, Ptolemy XIII, before falling out with him and plunging the country into a civil war that ended with the death of her brother/ husband, after Julius Caesar intervened and took her side in the conflict. She then married another brother, Ptolemy XIV, while carrying on an affair with Caesar. She bore the Roman dictator a son, Caesarion, the future Ptolemy XV – the dynasty’s last nominal ruler.

After Caesar’s assassination, Cleopatra took up with his chief lieutenant, Mark Antony, with whom she had one of history’s most famous love affairs. The couple were eventually defeated by Antony’s rival, Gaius Octavius, the future emperor Augustus. Antony fell on his sword, and Cleopatra famously committed suicide via snakebite in 30 BC. She was nominally succeeded by Ptolemy XV Caesarion, but Augustus had him killed when he was captured a few weeks later. The deaths of Cleopatra and Caesarion brought the Ptolemaic Dynasty to an end, and Egypt was made into a Roman province.

Here’s the Scoop on this Dysfunctional Dynasty in History
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (in blue), circa 300 BC. Wikimedia


Where Did We Find This Stuff? Some Sources and Further Reading

Bingen, Jean – Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture (2007)

Biography – Cleopatra VII

Bowman, Alan – Egypt After the Pharaohs: 332 BC – AD 64, From Alexander to the Arab Conquest (1996)

Encyclopedia Britannica – Gaius Popillius Laenas

Encyclopedia Britannica – Ptolemy I Soter

Ere Now – The Ptolemaic Royal Family: From Alexander the Great to Ptolemy of Mauretania

History of Macedonia – History of the Egyptian Kingdom of the Ptolemies (BC 323 to 30)

History Undressed – Keeping it in the (Ptolemaic) Family: When Incest is Best

io9 – The Great Library at Alexandria Was Destroyed by Budget Cuts, Not Fire

Livius – Ptolemy VIII Physcon

Strange History Net – The Most Dysfunctional Family in History: The Ptolemies

ThoughtCo – Rulers of the Ptolemies: Ancient Egypt From Alexander to Cleopatra

Wikipedia – Ptolemaic Kingdom

Wikipedia – Cleopatra III of Egypt