Facts About How The Aztec Culture Handled Their Desires
Facts About How The Aztec Culture Handled Their Desires

Facts About How The Aztec Culture Handled Their Desires

Trista - October 22, 2018

Facts About How The Aztec Culture Handled Their Desires
An illustration depicting the Aztec deity Chalchiuhtlicue. Wikimedia.

4. The Aztecs Viewed Childbirth As A Battle

The goddess Tlazolteotl governed the Aztec realm of childbirth. Midwives, in service of Tlazolteotl, would oversee all Aztec pregnancies and deliveries. They followed the guidance of their deity which included encouraging women to have sex until the seventh month of their pregnancy and avoiding celestial occurrences such as solar eclipses, which were believed to harm unborn children.

When the time came for delivery, Aztec mothers would be overseen by the midwives who would prepare sedative drinks brewed from herbs and place warm stones on the mother to ease her pain and cramping. Upon successful delivery, the midwife would raise several war cries to celebrate the mother’s accomplishment. The Aztecs viewed childbirth as women’s war and treated with similar respect to actual warfare.

Women who died in childbirth were mourned and honored in the same manner as fallen soldiers and afforded the same social status. Women who died in childbirth were also sometimes depicted as a form of vengeful spirit known as cihuateteo which were believed to stalk and prey on adults and abduct children. While women were afforded minimal status in Aztec society and were mostly treated as property, they were highly valued for their ability to give birth to future generations of Aztecs.

Facts About How The Aztec Culture Handled Their Desires
Two pages from the Codex Tudela, an Aztec manuscript. Wikimedia.

3. Umbilical Cords Were Preserved And Buried In Battlefields Or Underneath Hearths

The umbilical cords of newborn Aztecs were carefully preserved and saved for adulthood. Keeping the umbilical cord had profound cultural significance and was required for rituals at the passage into adulthood. When a baby was born, the midwife, known as a tlamatlquiticitl, would wash the baby and then remove the umbilical cord. The midwife would also stay with the mother for several days to ensure breastfeeding went well, as the Aztecs had no animals that could produce milk fit for infants.

If a female child were born, the umbilical cord would be buried under the hearth of the home. This practice was believed to make the child a good future wife and mother because the hearth is the center and lifeblood of the house. A book of Aztec sayings called Huehuetlatolli included a passage describing the custom, which encouraged girls to “be to the home what the heart is to the body.”

If a boy child was born, the umbilical was given to a male warrior, presumably in the infant’s extended familial group, to carry into foreign territory and bury in a battlefield. This method was believed to make the boy a strong warrior, which was vital to the Aztecs since the central value of a male Aztec child was his prowess in battle. Of male children, the Huehuetlatolli said, “Your trade and skill is war; your role is to give the sun the blood of your enemies to drink and feed the earth, Tlaltecuhtli, with the bodies of your enemies.”

Facts About How The Aztec Culture Handled Their Desires
A page from the Codex Borbonicus, an Aztec manuscript. Wikimedia.

2. Women Were Not Allowed To View Eclipses, Lest They Birth A Monster

The Aztecs believed that divine celestial events had a significant bearing on unborn children. In particular, they greatly feared the effects that solar eclipses would have on unborn children. The source of this belief was the Tzitzimitl, astral deities that were ordinarily harmless but turned into terrifying monsters when the sun disappeared during an eclipse. It was believed that women allowed to view the eclipse would come to be harmed by the Tzitzimitl who would turn their unborn children into monsters like themselves.

The Aztec midwives, known as tlamatlquiticitl, were responsible for ensuring the safety of pregnant women during events like eclipses. Any sign of cosmic disorder such as eclipses, comets or other strange events were taken as ill omens and a cause for pregnant women and their unborn children to be protected.

On a much more practical note to the modern mind, the tlamatlquiticitl also advised mothers, especially first-time mothers, on their health and diet. They also coached women on how to give birth, with the Aztec traditionally giving birth in a squatting position that allowed gravity to aid in the delivery. They also taught Aztec mothers how to breastfeed and ensured that the milk flowed adequately and that the infant learned how to latch on correctly.

Facts About How The Aztec Culture Handled Their Desires
A painting of conquistadors. Wikimedia.

1. Christian Conquistadors Forced Aztecs To Give Up Their Wives

When the Christian colonizers arrived from Spain in the 15th century, they brought the full force of their Catholic beliefs with them. Starting in 1529, the Catholics began converting Aztec nobility to Christendom with the aim of spreading it through the nobles to the lower classes. Part of the conversion included a demand to have only one wife, as polygamy was strictly outlawed under Christianity.

Under Christian law, any additional wife beyond the “primary” wife was an adulteress and immediately disinherited from the man’s family, and all children declared illegitimate. This forced monogamy had an immediate and disastrous effect on Aztec culture, as the many arranged marriages among nobility had forged alliances, concentrated wealth and settled disputes. It also left countless women with no legal or societal status.

Women who had woven cloth for their husbands before were now put to work by the Spanish in grueling conditions. The encomiendas were created, which was a Spanish labor system used in areas they colonized. The tradition of Aztec women as paid laborers was ended and men were put to work in cloth mills, ending the tradition of Aztec men as a warrior class. With the catastrophic changes to their culture and way of life, it is unsurprising that their Empire fell within a century of colonization.

 

Where did we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

“The mysteries of chili heat: Why people love the pain” John McQuaid, Salon. February 2015.

“Concubines and Cloth: Women and Weaving in Aztec Palaces and Colonial Mexico” Susan Toby Evans. 2008.

“How much for your love: prostitution among the Aztecs” Ulises Chávez Jimenez, Chacmool Conference Proceedings. 2004.

“Roles Of Men and Women In The Aztec Empire” History Crunch Writers, History Crunch, August 15, 2018.

Advertisement