37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration

37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration

Jacob Miller - July 3, 2017

The Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration began at the end of the 1800’s when Antarctica became the focus of international efforts for scientific and geographic exploration. 17 major explorations were launched by ten different countries.

As a precursor to the Historic age, British explorer James Cook, in the late 1770’s, explored the southern regions of the world in search of a large continent called Terra Australis. He was unable to reach what is now Antarctica because of the amount of ice in the waters, but he hypothesized that there must be a land mass of origin. The exploration of the South Pole was put on hiatus.

Between 1819 and 1843 interest was revived with the goal of reaching Antarctica proper. This resurgence in exploratory activity did not bring man to set foot on the Antarctic continent but significant contributions were made. Dumont D’Urville first sighted a rocky land formation. Charles Wilkes discovered Victoria Land, home to the volcanos Mt. Terror and Mt. Erebus

The third act of Antarctic exploration was spurred by German explorer George Von Neumeyer who believed in the importance of the South Pole in meteorology and weather prediction. In addition, the British Dr. John Murray gave a speech on November 27, 1863 entitled “The Renewal of Antarctic Exploration” to the Royal Geographic Society to resolve the mysteries of the Antarctic.

The Heroic Age began with an expedition embarked by the Belgian Geographic Society in 1897. And culminated in 1921with the Shackleton-Rowett Expedition.

Nineteen men died in the pursuit of knowledge during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Four died of unrelated illnesses, two died in accidents in New Zealand, and the 13 others died in service on or near the continent.

37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Belgian Antarctic Expedition, 1887-1889, was the first expedition to overwinter within the Antarctic Circle, after the ship was icebound in the Bellingshausen Sea. It collected the first annual cycle of Antarctic observations. It also reached 71°30’S, and discovered the Gerlache Strait. First Mate Roald Amundsen would later lead the first arrival at the South Pole, in 1911. Pinterest
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Lt. Adrien de Gerlache, at the beginning and the end of he Belgian Antarctic Expedition. Digital History Project
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Belgica, the ship of the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, ice locked in the Bellinghausen Sea, 1898. Ohio State University Library
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Cutting a canal to release the Belgica. Ohio State University Library
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
The British Antarctic Expedition ,1898-1990, lead by Carstern Borchgrevink was the first expedition to overwinter on the Antarctic mainland (Cape Adare), it was the first to make use of dogs and sledges. It made the first ascent of The Great Ice Barrier,[22] and set a Farthest South record at 78°30’S. It also calculated the location of the South Magnetic Pole. Antarctic Heritage Trust
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Borchgrevink’s expedition by the British flag. Antarctic Heritage Trust
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
The National Antarctic Discovery crew made the first ascent of the Western Mountains in Victoria Land, and discovered the polar plateau. Its southern journey set a new Farthest South record, 82°17’S.[26] Many other geographical features were discovered, mapped and named. This was the first of several expeditions based in McMurdo Sound.
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Robert Falcon Scott, leader of the National Antarctic Expedition, 1901-1904. scottslastexpedition
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
The Gauss, the ship of the First German Antarctic Expedition which was the first expedition to investigate eastern Antarctica, it discovered the coast of Kaiser Wilhelm II Land, and Mount Gauss. The expedition’s ship became trapped in ice, which prevented more extensive exploration. Pinterest
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Albatross on the deck of the Gauss. Cool Antarctica
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Erich von Drygalski Leader of the First German Expedition. Pinterest
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Otto Nordenskiöld was the leader of the Swedish Antarctic Expedition which worked in the east coastal area of Graham Land, and was marooned on Snow Hill Island and Paulet Island in the Weddell Sea, after the sinking of its expedition ship. It was rescued by the Argentinian naval vessel Uruguay. Wikiwand
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
During Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902-1904, the crew established the permanent Orcadas weather station in South Orkney Islands . The Weddell Sea was penetrated to 74°01’S, and the coastline of Coats Land was discovered, defining the sea’s eastern limits. newwsfeed1580
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
William Speirs Bruce, Head of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. Pinterest
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
The Third French Antarctic Expedition was a relief expedition for the stranded Nordenskiöld party, the main work of this expedition was the mapping and charting of islands and the western coasts of Graham Land, on the Antarctic peninsula. A section of the coast was explored, and named Loubet Land after the President of France. Captain Charcot (left) enjoys a glass of Mumm Champagne with his cartographer, Raymond Rallier du Baty, Antarctica, Bastille Day 1904. Cool Antarctica
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Jean-Baptiste Charcot, in a second expedition continued the work of the earlier French expedition with a general exploration of the Bellingshausen Sea, and the discovery of islands and other features, including Marguerite Bay, Charcot Island, Renaud Island, Mikkelsen Bay, Rothschild Island. youtube

37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Nimrod Expedition was the first expedition led by Earnest Shackleton. Based in McMurdo Sound, it pioneered the Beardmore Glacier route toward the South Pole, and the (limited) use of motorised transport. Its southern march reached 88°23’S, a new Farthest South record 97 geographical miles from the Pole. The Northern Party reached the location of the South Magnetic Pole. Here unloading Antarctica’s first motor vehicle.
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
The furthest south- Lat 85° 17′ South, National Antarctic Expedition. From album by Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton entitled National Antarctic Expedition, 1901-1903
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
E H Shackleton standing by wheel of the ‘Discovery’ (1901) From album by Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton entitled National Antarctic Expedition, 1901-1903
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Shackleton’s Antarctic Expedition, 1901-1903. From album by Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton entitled National Antarctic Expedition, 1901-1903
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Cecil Thomas Madigan, ice mask ,the meteorologist with Australian Douglas Mawson’s expedition of 1911-14, build up caused while he was returning to the base hut during a blizzard. Cool Antarctica
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Japanese Antarctic Expedition, 1910-1912, was the first non-European Antarctic expedition carried out a coastal exploration of King Edward VII Land, and investigated the eastern sector of the Great Ice Barrier, reaching 80°5’S.. memim
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Lt Nobu Shirase, leader of the Japanese Antarctic Expedition. Pinterest
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Amundsen and his dog tam at the south pole. Cool Antarctica
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Amundsen’s Norwegian Antarctic Expedition set up camp on the Great Ice Barrier, at the Bay of Whales. He discovered a new route to the polar plateau via the Axel Heiberg Glacier. A party of five led by Amundsen reached the South Pole via this route on 14 December 1911. National Library of Norway
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Photographs taken during the Australasian Antarctic Expedition in 1911, led by adventurer Douglas Mawson.
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Portrait of Herbert H. Ponting taken on the Matterhorn iceberg. 1910-1913, Scott’s last expedition, based like his first in McMurdo Sound. Scott and four companions reached the South Pole via the Beardmore route on 17 January 1912, 33 days after Amundsen. All five died on the return journey from the Pole, through a combination of starvation and cold. Cool Antarctica
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Wilhelm Filchner was the leader of the Second German Antarctic Expedition which was the first crossing of Antarctica. The expedition made the southernmost Weddell Sea penetration to date, reaching 77°45’S, and discovering Luitpold Coast, Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, and Vahsel Bay. It failed to establish a shore base from which to mount its transcontinental march, and after a long drift in the Weddell Sea pack ice it returned to South Georgia.
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Three AAE expeditioners with their sledge. The Australian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-1914 concentrated on the stretch of Antarctic coastline between Cape Adare and Mount Gauss, carrying out mapping and survey work on coastal and inland territories. Discoveries included Commonwealth Bay, Ninnis Glacier, Mertz Glacier, and Queen Mary Land. Australian Antarctic Division
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
AustralasianAntarctic Expedition. Wikimedia
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Douglas Mawson, Leader of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Cool Antarctica
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Endurance trapped in ice, 1916. The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition was Another transcontinental crossing attempt. It failed to land the Weddell Sea shore party after Endurance was trapped and crushed in ice. The expedition then rescued itself after a series of exploits, including a prolonged drift on an ice-floe, Shackleton’s open boat journey, and the first crossing of South Georgia. Cool Antarctica
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Charles Green the cook skinning a penguin during the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914-17, led by Ernest Shackleton. (Photo by Frank Hurley/Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge/Getty Images)
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Antarctica, The crew of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition playing a game of football (or soccer), with the Endurance in the background; ca. 1914-1917).miepvonsydow
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Ross Sea party. The Seven Survivors. The objective was to lay depots across the Great Ice Barrier, to supply the party crossing from the Weddell Sea. All the required depots were laid, but in the process three men, including the leader Mackintosh, lost their lives. toptenz
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Aurora at McMurdo Sound at the time of rescue. anmm.gov
37 Photographs Documenting the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration
Earnest Shackelton was the leader of the Shackelton-Rowett Expedition, whose objectives included coastal mapping, a possible continental circumnavigation, the investigation of sub-Antarctic islands, and oceanographic work. After Shackleton’s death on 5 January 1922, Quest completed a shortened programme before returning home. Cool Antarctica

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