10 Ways the United States Has Treated its Veterans Through History
10 Ways the United States Has Treated its Veterans Through History

10 Ways the United States Has Treated its Veterans Through History

Larry Holzwarth - April 11, 2018

10 Ways the United States Has Treated its Veterans Through History
Members of the Bonus Army in camp in Washington DC in the summer of 1932. Washington DC Public Library

World War I Veterans

The United States declared war on Germany in the spring of 1917, and Americans were soon rollicking to George M. Cohan’s Over There as America mobilized for war. General John J. Pershing began training his troops in the United States before shipping them to Europe and for the first time in the twentieth century American industry turned to war production. While it did so, a few enlightened members of Congress studied the means of taking care of the American troops and sailors when they returned after the war. It was obvious to them that the Civil War era method of providing pensions was unworkable, especially given the sheer number of men who would soon be under arms.

A law passed in October 1917 shifted the pension system to a new system based on the percentage of disability, establishing guidelines to allow a determination of the reduction of earning capacity based upon injuries sustained in service. It also gave greater leeway to the assessors, for the most part creating a system in which more generous awards for disability could be given to the veteran. Two veterans with identical impairments could be awarded different levels of compensation based on the number of people dependent on the veteran for their support.

The system also considered the size of the veteran’s immediate family to determine the amount of compensation due to one’s widow and children. Previously the amount had been solely dependent on the deceased veteran’s rank at the time he was killed. The new system took into account the sacrifice made by the veteran and his family, rather than his stature in the military ranks, and more fairly distributed the funds available to returning veterans and the families of those who did not return, or did so with debilitating injuries which precluded their further contributions to society.

Nonetheless, although the new system appeared to be fairer than those preceding it, its application was faulty. Returning veterans still had to go through a lengthy and often circuitous procedure in order to receive their promised benefits. The Americans again returned to celebratory parades only to find that once the flags were furled and the drums silenced the general public was not particularly concerned whether or not veterans received what they were promised when they joined to serve. The veterans of earlier wars were not absorbed into the new system, and they resented the more generous benefits awarded to the veterans of the First World War.

Throughout the 1920s the nation’s economy boomed, prohibition and the emergence of organized crime occupied the public attention, and the plight of veterans was largely ignored. The Army shrank, the Navy stored most of its ships, the United States entered into arms reduction treaties, and most Americans believed, at least for a time, that the War to End All Wars had accomplished just that. The incoming Roosevelt administration took steps to solidify the affairs of America’s veterans in 1933, repealing all preceding laws concerning America’s veterans and establishing new regulations and agencies, under the Executive Branch, to handle veteran’s affairs.

10 Ways the United States Has Treated its Veterans Through History
Members of the bonus army of World War 1 veterans clash with District of Columbia police in 1932. District of Columbia Public Library

The World War One Veterans Bonus Army

In 1924 the Congress passed the World War Adjusted Bonus Act, which gave veterans of the Great War bonuses in the form of certificates. The certificates were not redeemable until 1945. Congress passed the bill over President Coolidge’s veto, awarding every World War 1 veteran $1 per day of service within the United States (up to $500) and $1.25 per day for overseas duty (up to $625). Any veteran who accrued a total bonus which exceeded $50 was issued a certificate, which when redeemed would also pay compound interest on the total. Veterans were allowed to borrow against the certificate, but only up to 22.5% of the total, later increased to 50% because of the Great Depression.

In the summer of 1932, with the Great Depression at it depths, approximately 43,000 people marched on Washington DC and encamped in open areas around the capital. The press took to calling the encampments Hoovervilles. The marchers were about 17,500 World War 1 veterans, their families, and various supporters. They marched to call attention to the high level of unemployment among veterans and demand the early release of the certificates. The veterans established security in the camps, requiring proof of honorable discharge, or relationship to a veteran, in order to enter the camps.

In June the House of Representatives passed a bill called the Wright Patman bill to allow accelerated payment of the bonuses. The bill failed in the Republican controlled Senate. After protesting on the Capitol steps the veterans and their families returned to their camps. For the next few weeks the veterans protested before the Capitol daily. President Hoover, concerned about the press reports and the negative publicity being generated, ordered the Army to remove the protesters. When confronted by DC Metropolitan Police and Army troops the protesters retreated to the camps. When a portion of the Marine Corps garrison at the Washington Barracks sided with the veterans the Army was ordered to clear the camps.

Two Army officers whose names which would gain lasting fame, Douglas MacArthur and George S. Patton, were involved in clearing the camps. MacArthur called the protesters “communists” and approached the veterans with cavalry (including light tanks) and infantry. Patton commanded the cavalry. MacArthur first fired tear gas at the crowd, which included many wives and children of the veterans, before ordering an assault by both cavalry and infantry, armed with fixed bayonets. The crowd retreated across the Anacostia River, where their largest camp was located. Dismissing Hoover’s order to call off the assault, MacArthur ordered a pursuit.

MacArthur justified his action as protecting the government from an attempted coup. MacArthur was the highest ranking officer in the United States Army at the time. Another officer soon to achieve fame, Dwight David Eisenhower, observed the proceedings and was disgusted by them. Fifty-five veterans were injured during MacArthur’s attack, and it would not be the last time that he chose to disregard the orders of the commander in chief. “I told that dumb son of a bitch not to go down there,” Ike later said. In 1933 the veterans planned a second protest directed toward the Congress and the new President, FDR, arranged a campsite for them in Virginia and provided rations.

10 Ways the United States Has Treated its Veterans Through History
President Franklin Roosevelt signs the GI Bill of Rights in the White House, June 22, 1944. FDR Presidential Library

FDR and Veterans benefits and rights

In 1933 Franklin Delano Roosevelt became President, with the nation in the midst of the Great Depression and the perils of fascism and socialism rising in Europe. One of Roosevelt’s initiatives to battle unemployment was to put young, unmarried men to work in the Civilian Conservation Corps, building roads, National Parks, drainage improvements and many other projects. The CCC usually lived in camps near the projects upon which they worked. To ease unemployment among veterans, Roosevelt authorized the enlistment of 25,000 veterans, waiving the requirements that they be unmarried and under the age of twenty-five.

When Congress passed an act in 1936 allowing for the early payment of the World War 1 bonuses, FDR vetoed it, and Congress overrode the veto. Earlier Congress had rescinded and repealed all prevailing laws which controlled the compensation of veterans, placing the supervision of veteran’s affairs under the executive branch. Roosevelt established several agencies and bureaus to administer the veteran’s affairs and benefits. His predecessor, Herbert Hoover, had created the Veteran’s Administration, and FDR established committees which used some of his famous $1 per year advisors to make recommendations for the treatment of American veterans.

In 1944 FDR signed what became known as the GI Bill. The GI Bill replaced the bureaus which had previously administered veteran’s benefits and contained sweeping changes to the way the nation treated its veterans. Of its many changes, one was the provision for the purchase of homes. The VA Home Loan Guaranty Program is the only provision of the 1944 GI Bill remaining in effect. Contrary to the belief of many, the VA does not make loans to veterans, it merely underwrites them when they are written by private lenders. By the early 1990s the VA had guaranteed over 14 billion home loans, creating huge boosts to the construction industry, the expansion of the suburbs, and the growth of infrastructure to support new communities.

Under the GI Bill returning veterans from the Second World War that were unemployed received compensation at the rate of $20 per week for 52 weeks from the date of discharge. These veterans became known as the 52-20 club, and were met with some contempt by those who believed that they were encouraged to shirk when it came to looking for work by the one year benefit. They were also eligible for VA education benefits, which sent many to the highest level of education ever achieved by a member of their family. Part of what made the “greatest generation” the greatest is the government assistance they received to attain an education and purchase a home, something no previous veterans ever received.

Following the Second World War, boosted by the Korean and Vietnamese Wars, and with the wars underway today, the Veterans Health Administration has grown to become the largest of the three separate administrations which make up the Department of Veteran’s Affairs. In 1930 there were 54 hospitals and clinics treating veterans, mostly in state and federal soldier’s and sailor’s homes. By the end of the twentieth century there were more than one thousand facilities including hospitals, community clinics, nursing care homes, and domiciliaries serving veterans across the United States.

 

Where do we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

“Spare a Thought for Veterans of the American Revolution”, by Jay Cost, National Review, November 13, 2017

“A Narrative of a Revolutionary Soldier: Some of the Adventures, Dangers and Sufferings of Joseph Plumb Martin”, by Joseph Plumb Martin, with an introduction by Thomas Fleming, 2001

“War of 1812”, The Veterans Museum at Balboa Park, veteranmuseum.org

“The National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers”, Prologue Magazine, Spring 2004, National Archives, online

“Last of the Blue and Gray”, by Richard A. Serrano, 2013

“Did Civil War Soldiers have PTSD?”, by Tony Horwitz, Smithsonian Magazine, January 2015

“Sailors, Soldiers, and Marines of the Spanish American War: The Legacy of USS Maine, Part 2”, Prologue Magazine, National Archives, online

“The Bonus Army in Washington”, by Wyatt Kingseed, History Net, June 2004

“History – Department of Veteran’s Affairs”, About VA, US Department of Veteran’s Affairs online

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